Have you noticed the security guard in hospital using a long antenna raised handsets, like cell phone, talking with each other?? Yes, most of us have seen such device using in other places also: like malls, restaurants and shopping center. This device is called Walkie Talkie. Even Nepal Police, Army, Scout and other organizations are using this handset for communication with each other. So, in this post we are going to explain about everything on usage of walkie talkie in Nepal along with current rules and regulations. At first, let us know about walkie talkie.
1.What is walkie Talkie?
Walkie Talkie is the mobile like handset device which is used for communication. It is half duplex communication i.e voice is transferred in only one way at a single time. So when one person sends the voice message,the others cannot sends back and have to wait until the transmitter person stops sending but can receive the voice messages by all the device at once, This is because, the same frequency is used for both transmission and receiver, But in mobile phones, we can talk simultaneously because there is different frequency allocated for transmitter and receiver.
2. Walkie Talkie basic fundamentals
Walkie Talkie is primarily composed of outraged antenna with Push to talk button, speaker, microphone and channel setting button. Push to talk button is used to transmit voice. To transmit voice, users need to press PTT button because by default handsets are in receiver mode. Microphone is used to convert our analog voice signal into electrical signal while speaker is used to listen the voice messages sent by other users. Generally, speakers do the work of microphone and is used interchangeably as PTT is used to switch between them. In addition, PTT is used to transmit our voice signals to the network. Channel setting button is used to set the frequency/channel on which the walkie talki will communicate with each other. We will talk about frequency bandwidth, rules and regulations set by Nepal government later.
3. How Walkie Talkie work?
Walkie Talki doesn’t need any special centralized towers as needed by mobile phones for transceiver. Rather,it sends voice messages to other handsets directly. For this, all the walkie talkie handsets of the same organization or group is tuned/set into a single frequency. The tuned frequency is also called channel. Now, each and every handsets are connected in same channel whereas network is created by the handsets using electromagnetic wave. So every handsets creating network in the same channel are connected to each other. So now individual handsets can communicate with all the handsets connected in the same channel.
Here, only one channel is used for both transmission and receiver, So only one device can transmit the voice at a time but all other handsets will receive at once. By default, handsets are in receiver mode. So if we need to send voice messages, we need to press PTT and hold it until we complete our message.Then,after releasing PTT, our handsets will switch in default receiver mode.
In one channel, many handsets can be connected. Even, one can easily connect to other channel and listen their conversation. So for security purpose, many handsets are capable of implementing frequency hoping,i.e changing the frequency in time to time in-order to maintain security.
4.What is the frequency in which walkie talkie operate?
Walkie talkie handsets are manufactured and licensed to use in VHF and UHF frequency band. The VHF and UHF covers wide range of frequency band but for walkie talkie and electronics gadgets,frequncy band is restricted for certain bandwith only like UHF is the ultra high frequency having range 400-512 MhZ and VHF is the very high frequency range from 136-174 MhZ. These both frequency range are used for communication purpose designed for walkie talkie, remote toy and other electronics gadgets. But mostly walkie talkie is used in 465 MHz frequency band which is UHF.
Many modern handsets are designed to operate in UHF and VHF band according to need, requirement and necessity. Both frequency band have its own advantages and disadvantages. Let’s discuss below:
A. UHF-Ultra High Frequency:
It have frequency band of 400-512 MhZ.
Higher frequency have lower wavelength. So waves are shorter.
Can penetrate walls,trees and buildings due to small wavelengths.
Ideal for short distance communication.
B. VHF-Very High Frequency:
It have frequency band of 136-174 MhZ.
Low frequency have higher wavelength. So waves are longer.
Higher wavelength so ideal for line of sight communication.
Recommended for long distance communication as wave moves close to earth ground.
Frequency and the transmitting power of the walkie talkie plays important role in how far the communication can take place. Generally, handsets are designed to communicate in between 6 to 12 Km long.
As we discussed above, walkie talkie is half duplex and communicate in only one channel. Channel 11 is 467.6375 MhZ, channel 12 is 467.6625 MhZ. So, any organization having handsets, will tuned in channel 11 i.e at 467.6375 Mhz. All devices will be connected in same channel so that communication takes place.
5. What are the walkie talkie rules in Nepal?
Walkie talkie operation, use and misuse in Nepal all are under the Radio Act. According to this act, using the radio services like walkie talki needs to obtain license from Nepal government or its organization. But, if you are client and using services from other, you don’t need to get license however, the service provider must comply the Nepal government radio rules.
In order to get license, users need to pay certain money as license charge. Renewal charge is also needed if renewal needs to be done. Also, the device equipment’s model, location of operation is also need to be mention in the form.
Its important to realize that misuse of using this services can be penalized according to law. Rs 50,000 is fined for any improper raised using this services or can be doubled according to scene. Chief District Officer and Nepal Police have full authority to arrest, warned or even exempt the license as appropriate.
Using walkie talkie and intervening on other channel/frequency will also result in punishment.
6. How much the walkie talkies cost in Nepal?
All walkie talkies are imported in nepal from foreign countries like china, Japan, thailand, japan, Newzealand and other countries. Professionals Walkie Talkies cost from Rs 20,000 to upto Rs 100,000 per piece. The price also depends upon the features like power of the transmitting antenna, battery backup, hardware structure and many more. Walkie Talkies used by Nepal Police, Army and APF cost as high as 1 lakh per piece. Some of the most common usable walkie talkies brand in Nepal are Icom , Alinco, Baofeng, Kenwood, tait, Motorola, Kenwood and many more.
In conclusion, the judicial use of walkie talkie in nepal can be very useful during natural calamities, emergency and disaster.